Who gets TED?

Thyroid Eye Disease (TED) is the most common orbital disease in the Americas and Europe, with an annual incidence in females of approximately 14 per 100,000 and approximately one-fifth that for males. [5] Anecdotally, it may be less prevalent (or possibly causes fewer severe complications) in Africa and South Asia. However, it does occur in all races and ages, and is most common between the second and sixth decades. [6]

Chinese lady with right lid retraction                                                                                                            Indian lady with bulging eyes

Between 25 – 50% of patients with immune thyroid diseases develop orbital involvement, and of those, 5 – 10% may develop more severe consequences such as severe inflammation and congestion, impaired motility, or compressive optic neuropathy. [7]
A smaller percentage may develop Graves’ lower limb dermopathy (pretibial myxedema, with deposition of subdermal hyaluronic acid), usually 1-2 years following the onset of thyroid gland dysfunction and shortly following severe orbitopathy, and a smaller subset may develop acropachy (“clubbing” or thickening of the tips of the fingers and nail beds). [8]
   

  Pre-tibial myxedema on lower leg                                                                                                     Acropachy “clubbing” of fingers

Between 25 – 50% of patients with immune thyroid diseases develop orbital involvement, and of those, 5 – 10% may develop more severe consequences such as severe inflammation and congestion, impaired motility, or compressive optic neuropathy. [7]

 

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